COVID 19 Virus Information Hub

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UN Research Roadmap for the COVID-19 Recover (Click more) (Orginal Document)


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Sri Lankan Updates – Epidemiology Unit of Ministry of Health (Web)
1. ‘A Sequence Homology and Bioinformatic Approach Can Predict Candidate Targets for Immune Responses to SARS-CoV-2’
Identify potential targets for immune responses to the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) by sequence homology with closely related SARS-CoV and by a priori epitope prediction using bioinformatics approaches. This analysis provides essential information for understanding human immune responses to this virus and for evaluating diagnostic and vaccine candidates
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2. ‘Research and Development on Therapeutic Agents and Vaccines for COVID-19 and Related Human Coronavirus Diseases’
Provide an overview of published scientific information with an emphasis on patents in the CAS content collection. It highlights antiviral strategies involving small molecules and biologics targeting complex molecular interactions involved in coronavirus infection and replication. The drug-repurposing effort documented herein focuses primarily on agents known to be effective against other RNA viruses including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The patent analysis of coronavirus related biologics includes therapeutic antibodies, cytokines, and nucleic acid-based therapies targeting virus gene expression as well as various types of vaccines. More than 500 patents disclose methodologies of these four biologics with the potential for treating and preventing coronavirus infections, which may be applicable to COVID-19.
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3. WHO Global research on coronavirus disease (COVID-19)
WHO is gathering the latest scientific findings and knowledge on coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and compiling it in a database. They update the database daily from searches of bibliographic databases, hand searches of the table of contents of relevant journals, and the addition of other relevant scientific articles that come to their attention. The entries in the database may not be exhaustive and new research will be added regularly.
World’s most complete and most accurate data on clinical trials of advanced cell therapy are provided.
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5. NIH LitCovid, curated literature hub for tracking up-to-date scientific information about Covid-19
LitCovid is a curated literature hub for tracking up-to-date scientific information about the 2019 novel Coronavirus. It is the most comprehensive resource on the subject, providing a central access to 2297 (and growing) relevant articles in PubMed. The articles are updated daily and are further categorized by different research topics and geographic locations for improved access.
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6. COVID-19 Research Export File, All relevant research publications about Covid-19 and the disease it causes (provided by Dimensions)
Information regarding CoVID 19 Dimensions, Publications, Clinical Trials and Data sets could be obtained here.
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7. 90+ drug candidates identified for further research by Causaly A.I.
With trials for Chloroquine well under-way, a deeper look has been taken into the world’s biomedical literature, uncovering additional compounds with potential to be repurposed as COVID-19 treatments. Approved sustances known to inhibit targets which increase members of the Coronaviridae family has been looked for, that also have a documented link to the ACE2 protein (like Chloroquine). In total, 90,000 connections between approved drugs, potential drug targets and Coronaviridae viruses have been identified. 42 substances have been identified warranting further research. Free open access to this data, and Causaly AI for any non-commercial research is to be offered to any interested researchers.
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8. SemanthicScholar, COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19)
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Allen Institute for AI has partnered with leading research groups to prepare and distribute the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19), a free resource of over 45,000 scholarly articles, including over 33,000 with full text, about COVID-19 and the coronavirus family of viruses for use by the global research community.
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9. Day-Level COVID-19 Dataset, hosted on Kaggle
Day level information on covid-19 affected cases updated continuously
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10. SARS-CoV-2 Sequences, genomic sequence database hosted by NCBI
Genome sequences, Research articles and other resources are included in this database.
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11. Novel coronavirus found in wastewater -Sewage water as indicator for spreading of COVID-19?
The above finding is from Research at National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Netherland. This research also sounds the virus can enter even into gastrointestinal tract and survive there other than the respiratory tract.
Details available at

12. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing serum antibodies in cats: a serological investigation
In this study, detected the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in cats in Wuhan during the COVID-19 outbreak with  ELISA,  VNT  and western blot.  A total of 102 cats were tested, 15 (14.7%) were positive for RBD  based  ELISA  and  11  (10.8%)  were further positive with  VNT.  These results demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2  has infected cat populations in  Wuhan,  implying that this risk could also occur in other outbreak regions.  The retrospective investigation confirmed that all of  ELISA  positive sera were sampled after the outbreak, suggesting that the infection of cats could be due to the virus transmission from humans to cats.  Certainly,  it is still needed to be verified via investigating the  SARS-CoV-2  infections  before this outbreak in a  wide range of sampling. At present, there is no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from cats to humans.
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13. Phylogenetic network analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes
In a phylogenetic network analysis of 160 complete human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) genomes, the authors had found three central variants distinguished by amino acid changes, which had been named A, B, and C, with A being the ancestral type according to the bat outgroup coronavirus. The A and C types are found in significant proportions outside East Asia, that is, in Europeans and Americans. In contrast, the B type is the most common type in East Asia, and its ancestral genome appears not to have spread outside East Asia without first mutating into derived B types, pointing to founder effects or immunological or environmental resistance against this type outside Asia. The network faithfully traces routes of infections for documented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, indicating that phylogenetic networks can likewise be successfully used to help trace undocumented COVID-19 infection sources, which can then be quarantined to prevent recurrent spread of the disease worldwide.
La Jolla Institute for Immunology is a non-profit research organization located in La Jolla, California. It is located in UC San Diego's Research Park. The Institute researches immunology and immune system diseases. La Jolla Institute for Immunology is updating the community on its related research efforts underway as well as resources for additional information.
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15. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing serum antibodies in cats: a serological investigation
Seasonal human coronaviruses, influenza viruses and rhinoviruses have been identified in exhaled breath and coughs of children and adults with acute respiratory illness. Surgical face masks significantly reduced detection of influenza virus RNA in respiratory droplets and coronavirus RNA in aerosols, with a trend toward reduced detection of coronavirus RNA in respiratory droplets. The results indicate that surgical face masks could prevent transmission of human coronaviruses and influenza viruses from symptomatic individuals.
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16. Coron Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) News and Resources from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, USA 
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17. The Lancet: CoVID 19 Resource Centre
To assist health workers and researchers working under challenging conditions to bring this outbreak to a close, The Lancet has created a Coronavirus Resource Centre. This resource brings together new 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) content from across The Lancet journals as it is published. All of our COVID-19 content is free to access.
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18. Elsivier Novel Coronavirus information centre
Elsevier’s free health and medical research on the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and COVID-19
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19. BMJ's Coronavirus (Covid-19) Hub
BMJ's covid-19 hub supports health professionals and researchers with practical guidance, online CPD courses, as well as the latest news, comment, and research from BMJ. The content is free and updated daily.
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20. Cell Press Coronavirus Resource Hub
On this hub page, curated by members of the Cell press editorial team, policies for submitting papers related to COVID-19, as well as content about the outbreak as it appears in Cell Press journals could be found.
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21. CoVID 19 Research Registry of the American Society for Microbiology
ASM is keeping the pulse of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In the eye of a pandemic, the need for a trusted, up-to-date resource of coronavirus research plays a crucial role in supporting the scientific community on the frontlines fighting the virus. This registry includes top-ranked, COVID-19 research articles curated by experts and serves as a resource for scientists working together to address fundamental science and accelerate scientific research on SARS-CoV-2.
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22. Coronavirus knowledge hub of the ‘Frontiers’
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23. Targets of T Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus in Humans with COVID-19 Disease and Unexposed Individuals 
Understanding adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is important for vaccine development, interpreting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis, and calibration of pandemic control measures. Using HLA class I and II predicted peptide “megapools,” circulating SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were identified in ∼70% and 100% of COVID-19 convalescent patients, respectively. CD4+ T cell responses to spike, the main target of most vaccine efforts, were robust and correlated with the magnitude of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA titers. The M, spike, and N proteins each accounted for 11%–27% of the total CD4+ response, with additional responses commonly targeting nsp3, nsp4, ORF3a, and ORF8, among others. For CD8+ T cells, spike and M were recognized, with at least eight SARS-CoV-2 ORFs targeted. Importantly, it was detected that SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells in ∼40%–60% of unexposed individuals, suggesting cross-reactive T cell recognition between circulating “common cold” coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2.
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24. Convergent antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent individuals
During the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 infected millions of people and claimed hundreds of thousands of lives. Virus entry into cells depends on the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S). Although there is no vaccine, it is likely that antibodies will be essential for protection. However, little is known about the human antibody response to SARS-CoV-21–5. Here we 149 COVID-19 convalescent individuals were studied. Plasmas collected an average of 39 days after the onset of symptoms had variable half-maximal pseudovirus neutralizing titres: less than 1:50 in 33% and below 1:1,000 in 79%, while only 1% showed titres above 1:5,000. Antibody sequencing revealed expanded clones of RBD-specific memory B cells expressing closely related antibodies in different individuals. Despite low plasma titres, antibodies to three distinct epitopes on RBD neutralized at half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values) as low as single digit nanograms per millitre. Thus, most convalescent plasmas obtained from individuals who recover from COVID-19 were not containing high levels of neutralizing activity. Nevertheless, rare but recurring RBD-specific antibodies with potent antiviral activity had been found in all individuals tested, suggesting that a vaccine designed to elicit such antibodies could be broadly effective.

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25. Cellular Nanosponges Inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Infectivity
Cellular nanosponges could be reported as an effective medical countermeasure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Two types of cellular nanosponges are made of the plasma membranes derived from human lung epithelial type II cells or human macrophages. These nanosponges display the same protein receptors, both identified and unidentified, required by SARS-CoV-2 for cellular entry. It is shown that, following incubation with the nanosponges, SARS-CoV-2 is neutralized and unable to infect cells. Crucially, the nanosponge platform is agnostic to viral mutations and potentially viral species, as well. As long as the target of the virus remains the identified host cell, the nanosponges will be able to neutralize the virus.

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26. Genomewide Association Study of Severe Covid-19 with Respiratory Failure

There is considerable variation in disease behavior among patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Genome wide association analysis was thought to allow for the identification of potential genetic factors involved in the development of Covid-19. A genomewide association study was conducted involving 1980 patients with Covid-19 and severe disease (defined as respiratory failure) at seven hospitals in the Italian and Spanish epicenters of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Europe. Cross-replicating associations with rs11385942 at locus 3p21.31 and with rs657152 at locus 9q34.2, were observed which were significant at the genome wide level (P<5×10−8) in the meta-analysis of the two case–control panels (odds ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 2.11; P=1.15×10−10; and odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.47; P=4.95×10−8, respectively). A 3p21.31 gene cluster was identified as a genetic susceptibility locus in patients with Covid-19 with respiratory failure and confirmed a potential involvement of the ABO blood-group system.
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27. Neanderthal DNA raises risk of severe COVID

A genetic analysis reveals that some people who have severe reactions to the SARS-CoV-2 virus inherited certain sections of their DNA from Neanderthals. The research study checked the prevalence of the Neanderthal-derived haplotype in the modern human population. They report that it is rare or completely absent in east Asians and Africans. Among Latin Americans and Europeans, the risk haplotype is maintained at a modest frequency (4% and 8%, respectively). By contrast, the haplotype occurs at a frequency of 30% in individuals who have south Asian ancestry, reaching as high as 37% in those with Bangladeshi heritage.

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